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Annual Journal 44 – 2010

Themes, Authors, Abstracts, Keywords (Details)

Main connecting sewer in a former mining area in the Deuben municipality in the Burgenland district of Saxony-Anhalt
by Heiko Schiemann and Hendrik Kahnt

Unstable soils, areas of mining subsidence and earthquake zones are just some of the conditions that ductile cast iron pipes have long been able to cope with, as they have again demonstrated at a sewer laid in the Burgenland district of Saxony-Anhalt in Germany. The only possible route for a gravity sewer ran through small subsidence troughs, but these troughs were successfully crossed by DN 250 pipes with restrained joints. Even the inspection chambers have restrained joints. Ductile cast iron pipes were the most economical solution under these difficult conditions.

Key words: Main connecting sewer, former mining area, municipality of Deuben, Burgenland district, villages of Naundorf – Wildschütz – Nödlitz, underground and open-cast mining, brown coal, depths, sewer pipe, ongoing costs, route for the sewer, gravity sewer, Office of Geology and Mining of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Office of Mining, underground galleries, Emilie pit, water table, subsidence sinkholes, selection of the pipes, high longitudinal bending strength, risk of fracture, vitrified clay pipes, PVC pipes, PVC sewer connecting pipes, polyethylene pipes, stress requirements, DN 200 and DN 250 ductile iron pipes, ductile cast iron, stress analysis, verified (pipe stability verified), simply supported beams, cantilever beams, subsidence, restrained BLS® push-in joints, resulting longitudinal forces, ground, EN 598, TYTON® push-in joints, DIN 28603, lined with cement mortar, metallic zinc coating, epoxy top coat, area where there was mining subsidence, wall-thickness class K 9, restrained, bottom section of concrete manhole, restrained VRS manhole collector, connecting pipes to the houses, all socket tees, shore the walls of the trench, drain (the trench), slide rail shoring, drainage pipes, open trenches, ground water, deposits of brown coal, pipe trench, floor of the trench, deflectability, drainage effect, transverse barriers of concrete, cohesive material, key data, installation costs, difficult constraints, monitoring of the work, checking of invoices, price per metre of pipe, price per metre, problems with the ground, ductile iron pipe system, economic success.

The “Gämpi” sewer viaduct with walk-on maintenance access – a main sewer of DN 400 polyurethane-lined ductile cast iron pipes
by Urs Lang
The DN 400 main sewer of a mountain village in Switzerland crosses a deep valley on a pipe viaduct. After 50 years, both the sewer and the viaduct needed to be replaced and the foundations of the viaduct needed to be moved to an area where the ground was more stable. The old sewer had to be kept in service during the replacement work and only one hour was available for the changeover. Due to the inaccessibility of the site, all of the material had to be brought in by helicopter. Ductile cast iron pipes with restrained joints and a polyurethane lining showed how suitable they are for difficult projects of this kind.

Key words: Sewer viaduct, main sewer, DN 400 ductile cast iron pipes, polyurethane-lined, main sewer, DN 400 fibre cement pipes, slope, stream called the Würzenbach, village of Adligenswil, old viaduct, erosion, slippage, renovation project, study of the variant options, safety, protection, accessibility, foundations, slipping slope, walk-on access, maintenance work, small longitudinal gradient, destabilised foundations which had slipped, gradient, inspection manhole, overall length, width, height, ground level, seen in plan, intermediate supports, structural dimensions of viaduct, steel structure, longitudinal girders, transverse girders, floor of steel gratings, abutments, moraine, banks of the Würzenbach, flow-channelling blocks, hydrodynamic profile, block stones, galvanized steel, difficult impassable terrain, transport, helicopter, sewer pipeline, hit by trees, drawing of the viaduct in cross-section, material selected, sewer pipe, transport capacity for suspended material, low frictional drag, high strength, ductile cast iron as a material, low weight, resistance to abrasion, fast and safe connecting technique, polyurethane-lined, hydrotight restrained joint, execution phase, concrete foundations, installation of pipes, transport helicopters, shift in position of the viaduct, connection time, restrained push-in joints, 30° bend, intermediate storage point, exterior hydrotight restrained joint, geopur pipe, entry into operation.

Cast iron sewer pipes – and big ones too: Replacement of the combined sewer and storm water pipeline in the town of Willingen (Upland)
by Ingolf Bittermann and Karl-Wilhelm Römer

When sewer pipes have to be replaced in narrow old streets in towns in mountainous areas, this is often the right time for ductile cast iron pipes to be used. This was the situation in Willingen (Upland) in the German state of Hesse where there was a combination of the following problems: shallow top cover, an increase in diameter, existing buildings and existing pipes and cables for other services and the need to maintain drainage capacity and access to shops and for residents. It was only the ductile cast iron pipe that could solve these problems and it even did so four weeks earlier than scheduled.

Key words: Replacement, ductile iron sewer pipes, big ones, combined sewer and storm water pipeline, Willingen the main town of the municipality, Westerwald mountain range, Rothaargebirge range, FIS Ski-Jumping World Cup, Mountain Bike Festival, Alpenhorn Fair, sewage, treatment plant, refurbishment requirements, conversion or replacement of sewer systems, Schwalefelder Strasse, refurbishment as a whole, sewer network, hydrodynamic calculations, pipe diameters, overflow and flood frequencies, rainwater overflow structure, right hydraulic dimensions, standards of good engineering practice, rocky ground, conventional open-trench techniques, Oppermann GmbH civil engineering company, receiving watercourse the Itterbach, main sewer, access for people and deliveries, location plan for the work, demolition, building of a new system, rainwater relief system, columns running into pointed arches, post-and-beam house, pipe cross-section of DN 1400, cable network, gas pipeline, small height of cover, relief sewer, concrete-framed rectangular sewer, lack of space, DN 500 ductile iron pipes, EN 598, internal protection, lined with high-alumina cement mortar, external protection, zinc coat, top coating, TYTON® push-in joint, DIN 28603, pipeline systems for drinking water and sewage, high earth loadings and traffic loads, position of old sewer, supply pipelines, existing buildings, short installation time, restricted call for bids, Rohde/Wachenfeld consortium, Waldeck-Frankenberg district, DN 1400 outlet sewer, wall of bored secant piles, anchored at the rear, no damage to buildings, rainwater overflow structure, shallow depth, relief flow rate Qout, small wall-thickness, ductile sewer pipes, twin DN 1000 pipelines, reinforced concrete pipes, Itterbachstrasse, twin DN 1000 bends, outfall, wing wall, structure of a bridge, relief pipelines, sheathed in Dämmer filling material, pre-cast reinforced concrete manholes, structures of cast-in-situ concrete, manhole connections, house connections from the sewer, saddles, inlet main of sizes from DN 900 to DN 1200, overall length of the ductile iron sewer pipes, cuts in the pipes, pipe installation, adapting pipes, deliveries of pipes, no downtimes, operation completed, final deadline met.

An interim report: Cast iron veins to carry some of the lifeblood of the new Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport (BBI)
by Lutz Rau

Construction of the new Berlin International Airport BBI includes an extensive network of drinking water and waste water pipelines. This interim report shows that two years before completion of the airport more than 60 km of ductile cast iron pipelines ranging in size from DN 80 to DN 700 have been laid, most of them with restrained joints. The safety requirements of the designers and operators are extremely demanding but they can be met by pipelines of ductile cast iron.

Key words: Development, DN 80 to DN 600 ductile iron pipes, Berlin Brandenburg International Airport (BBI), interim report, giant construction site, Schönefeld airport, Schönefeld autobahn interchange, railway links, S-Bahn, construction of the new airport, flying services, re-organisation of the transport connections, supply and disposal pipelines, requirements, long life, safety, drinking water supply system, sewage and wastewater disposal system, EN 545, EN 598, (frictional TYTON®-BRS® and positive locking TYTON®-BLS®) restraint systems, pipeline re-laying work, preparation of construction site, drainage pipeline for rainwater, ductile iron pipes for conveying drinking water, sewage and wastewater, between DN 150 and DN 700, off-airport development for sewage, airport site, Wassmannsdorf sewage treatment plant, commissioning phase, DN 300, re-laid, drinking water pipeline of “Hume” pipes, DN 600 K 10, installed in parallel, grounds of the treatment plant, length of pipeline, Berliner Wasserbetriebe (BWB), off-airport development for drinking water, Märkischer Abwasser- und Wasserverband (MAWV), DN 400, drinking water, volume, peak times, connecting pipeline, security of supply, little settlement of Kienberg, on-airport development, BBI GU XI Ver- und Entsorgung (BBI General Contractor: Supply & Disposal) consortium, supply pipelines, volume of work, changing soil conditions, site conditions, beginning of above-ground construction, sections, runs of casing tube, main pipeline systems, final development, drinking water hygiene, entry into operation, railway tunnel, railway station, airport terminal building, DN 200, reinforcement of the railway tunnel, railway link, thermally insulated drinking water pipe, DN 150, track crossing, I profiles, DN 600 pipeline for rainwater drainage, linings, TYTON® NBR gaskets, wastewater from de-icing, oil resistance, safety at the planning stage, impermeability to diffusion, the event of an accident, fuel lines, phenols, socket joints fitted with sleeves, pushing-in, BLS® socket joint, K 10 wall-thickness class, security partner, time slot for entry, smooth flow of site traffic, access points to the site, small heights of cover, parts where there are hydrants, thrust blocks not needed, short installation times, special attachment, spigot end, pipe socket, reverse movement required for locking, string of pipes, stretching of the pipeline, ductile iron pipe system, easy to connect and install, complete systems of fittings, intermediate stages of installation, BBI Info Tower, site inspection.

Reconstruction of the Rietwis bridge in Wattwill an der Thur in Switzerland includes a thermally insulated DN 200 ductile cast iron water pipeline
by Stefan Rüegg

A road bridge has been adapted to the increased payloads of vehicles and this called for a drinking water pipeline installed on the bridge to be replaced. Its cross-section was increased to DN 200. To meet state of the art standards, the pipes were provided with factory-applied thermal insulation with an electrical trace heating system.

Key words: Bridge-carried pipeline, reconstruction of the Rietwis bridge, municipality of Wattwil, river Thur, DN 200 thermally insulated ductile iron pipeline (of ecopur pipes), canton of St. Gallen, steel truss bridge, cantonal council, cantonal road-planning map, payload, project competition, Schällibaum Ingenieure AG, safe load-bearing capacity, fitness for purpose, heritage protection, St. Gallen Cantonal Office of Civil Engineering, Roads and Roadway Structures Department, new bridge, reference reservoir, main infeed, network of water pipes, DN 125 grey cast iron pipes, performance requirements, protection against freezing up, trace heating, manufacturer’s works in Choindez, thermal insulation, HWT Haus- und Wassertechnik AG, constant temperature, DN 315 HDPE casing tube, wall-thickness, duct of galvanized steel, trace heating cable, Energie Wattwil AG, polyurethane foam, foam density, installation, DN 200 ecopur pipeline, abutments, steel girders, structure of the bridge, external restraints, openings, steel girders, pipe bearings, push-in joints locked against longitudinal forces, hydrotight internal thrust resistance system, polyethylene casing tubes, electrofusion couplers.

Renovation of the water main running from the Nibelungenplatz to the Danziger Platz in Frankfurt am Main
by Alexandra Scholz and Christian Schmidt

A more than 60 year old water main made of DN 500 grey cast iron pipes lay along a threelane east-west arterial highway in Frankfurt am Main. Due to “spongiosis” (graphitization) it was prone to damage and needed to be renovated. Hydraulic calculations indicated that the crosssection could be reduced from DN 500 to DN 300. The final outcome of an exemplary multi-stage planning process including a feasibility study, a comparison of variant laying techniques and a study of the existing pipeline was the selection of relining with ductile cast iron pipes in two sections. Such thorough planning had to succeed!

Key words: Relining with DN 300 pipes, renovation of a water main, Nibelungenplatz, Danziger Platz, Frankfurt am Main, renovation, DN 500 drinking water pipeline, Alleenring ring road, cast iron pipes, damage / corrosion (“spongiosis” or graphitisation), grey cast iron, pipeline which had to be renovated, planning phase, renovation, feasibility study, comparison of variant renovation techniques, economic / technical and operational aspects, cross-section required, Netzdienste Rhein-Main GmbH, DN 300 cross-section required from the hydraulic point of view, economic reasons, trenchless technique, butt-welded steel pipes, BLS® push-in joint, cost estimate, quality assurance, welds, technique decided, DN 300 K 9 PN 10 pipes of ductile cast iron, cement mortar lining (ZMA), cement mortar coating (ZMU), EN 545, old pipe, new pipe, annular space, external protection, EN 15542, pulling-in process, socket joints, sheet-metal cones, traffic-related constraints, existing trees, construction site signs and barricades, directing of traffic, environmental impact and compensation plan, route, open trenches, top cover over the pipes, existing pipeline, valves, area occupied by roadway and green spaces, insertion trenches, pulling-in trenches, execution of the work was being planned, incrustations, inspection with a camera, bore joist sheeting with wood plug, trench depth, locating slots, documentation on existing utility lines, pulling-in of lining pipes, calibration, handling and installation instructions, maximum permitted tractive forces, section of the relining operation, double slide-rail shoring, pile chamber shoring, restricted space, old DN 500 pipeline, filling material, flushing, pressure-testing, disinfection, Frankfurt Civic Water Drainage authority, flushing water, inlets along the roadway, sewers, internal pressure-testing, EN 805, DVGW Arbeitsblatt W 400-2, DVGW Arbeitsblatt W 291, entry into service, renovation project.

Renovation of large trunk water mains in Leipzig
by Henry Simon and Wolfgang Rink

The development of a town is reflected in its infrastructure. While Leipzig was growing in the era of progressive industrialization, the system for supplying drinking water was constantly having to be extended. There was further growth too after the Second World War. Re-unification was followed by a drastic fall in consumption due to demographic change and the fact that there was now a charge for consumption. As a result, the cross-sections of the pipelines have to be downsized to adjust the residence time of the drinking water in them to meet health requirements. Relining with ductile cast iron pipes has proved successful for the large trunk mains. Regardless of the condition of the old pipeline, the new pipeline that is pulled in or pushed in is equivalent to a newly laid one, with all that this means for useful life and depreciation. The installation costs are lower than for conventional laying in open trenches.

Key words: Renovation, trunk water mains, Leipzig, Naunhofer waterworks, new waterworks, Adolf Thiem, bores, area of the banks, river Mulde, volumes of groundwater, hydrological investigations, Leipzig council, intake system, security of supply, trunk main, pressure pipelines, DN 1000 and DN 1100 grey cast iron pipes, open-cast mining of brown coal, Leipzig-Grünau district, steel DN 1000 trunk main for supplying drinking water, KWL Kommunale Wasserwerke Leipzig GmbH, demographic change, figures for water consumption, renovation schemes, minimum nominal sizes, pipe relining – pulling-in and pushing-in, Thallwitz-Canitz trunk main, times out of operation, laying in parallel, butterfly-valve-equipped cross, shoring of a trench, sheet pile shoring, pushing trenches, arrival trenches, DN 900 ductile iron pipes, lengths pushed in, TYTON® push-in joint, BLS® push-in joint, EN 545, cement mortar lining, annular space, pressure testing, alkaline filler, zinc coat, epoxy top coating, permitted pushing-in forces, safety factor, radiuses of curves, angular deflections, old DN 1100 pipeline, very high water pressure, incrustations, cleaning with chain cutters, differences in position, nominal size, outside diameter, wall-thickness class, wall-thickness, permitted compression stress, reduction of the push-in forces, assembling time, pushing-in time, sheet metal cones, abrasion, weight of the string of pipes, butterfly-valve-equipped cross, DN 800 butterfly valves, DN 600 connecting valve, thrust blocks, sized, maximum operating pressure, Thallwitz-Leipzig trunk main, release from the point of view of drinking water hygiene, hydraulic requirements, renovation technique, installation pits, existing trees, DVGW Arbeitsblatt GW 320-1, route, DN 600 ductile iron pipes, permitted pull-in forces, deflectability, component operating pressure, costs of excavation, short assembling time, pulling-in operations, cleaning and calibrated pipeline, lateral connections, flushing out, road infrastructure, installation time, technical working life, depreciation assumed for costing purposes, open trenches, cost savings, trenchless replacements, installation without any trouble.

The development of valves for pipe networks in water supply
by Oliver Jäger

For the safe and reliable distribution of good quality drinking water, the industry has always relied on durable products whose life cycles are measured in decades. Nevertheless, it is important for there to be a continuous and forward looking process of ongoing development. Some selected groups of products are taken as examples to show the stages by which certain features have developed in the field of valves.

Key words: Pipe networks, development, water supply, drinking water, security of supply, quality of drinking water, water supply companies, requirements and tests, set of rules, state of the art, ductile cast iron materials, valves, basic functions, costs of maintaining and renovating, body parts, lamellar graphite, corrosion protection, paint finishes, epoxy resin, film thicknesses, powder coatings, Gütegemeinschaft Schwerer Korrosionsschutz (GSK) (GSK Quality Association for Heavy Duty Corrosion Protection), enamel finish, drinking water hygiene, bolts for connecting valve bodies, stainless steel, minimum of A2 grade, sealing components, development of materials, fibrous materials, elastomers, toxicology, KTW recommendations, microbiology, DVGW Arbeitsblatt W 270, coating materials, connections to other pipeline components, flange connections, push-in joints, pipe material, resilient seated gate valves, Multamed 2 Plus, metal seats, shut-off wedge, area sealing against the seat, rubber coating, smooth floor of “tube” through valve, body of the valve, gate-valve seat trough, leaks, solids, maintenance-free stem sealing, O-rings, non-corroding materials, material of the stem, brass, cut-away view of a butterfly valve, ROCO Premium, resilient structure, O-ring butterfly valves, profiled sealing rings, valve disc, mounting of the shafts, lip seal, “blow-out-proof” mounting, hydrants, valve cone, main shut-off, “downward-opening”, double shut-off, hide, cutaway view of an underground hydrant, one-piece bodies, inlet piece to the body, post hydrants, breakage point, Twin-Air, colour, above-ground section, cut-away view of an air-release and air-admission valve, air-release and air-admission valves, pillar, street cap, valve itself, maintenance, pressure and flow control valves, cutaway view of a needle valve, RKV Premium, pressure reducing valves, innovation, piston including the piston bearing, long-term durability of the piston, cavitation in the seat region, the medium itself, pilot-controlled valves, spring, production costs, looked at in both technical and economic terms, damage-free use, overall costs, large valves, lifetimes.

Renovation of a drinking water pipeline intersection in Burgkunstadt in Bavaria
by Udo Arrenberg

The successful development of valves and fittings is focused on customers’ problems and requirements. Typical examples of this are the flangeless gate valve with restrained sockets and the adapter for fitting between old pipes of different materials and the restrained socketed gate valve. When a pipe cross with four integrated gate valves and a hydrant was replaced in a municipal water distribution system, the new valves and accessories cut the number of individual components from 546 to 47 and the installation time went down from four hours to less than one.

Key words: Renovation, drinking water pipeline intersection, Burgkunstadt, BAIO® system, non-bolted restrained connecting system which is protected against corrosion, drinking water and gas pipelines, Hawle Armaturen GmbH, easy pipe installation, integral restraint system, fittings, gate valves, non-conducting, pipe materials, cast iron, PE, PVC, steel, sizes from DN 80 to DN 300, able to be angled, socket end/spigot end connection, Gütegemeinschaft Schwerer Korrosionsschutz (GSK) / GSK Quality Association for Heavy Duty Corrosion Protection, powder coating, DVGW Arbeitsblatt GW 368, ductile iron pipes, seals for ductile iron pipes, TYTON® seal, BAIO® lip seal, cut-in sleeve (EMS), BAIO® spigot end, collar section, Multi/Joint® socket, renovation operation, flanged pipeline intersection fitted with gate valves, DN 150 main pipeline of PVC, DN 100 pipeline of cast iron, DN 100 lateral connections of PVC and cast iron, corrosion, valves, trench, pipe ends, BAIO® sockets, height-adjustable underground hydrant, telescopic extension spindles, gate valves, flanged intersection, time saved, cost savings, shorter installation times, consideration of the overall picture, settlement, rigid flanged connections.

Ductile cast iron valves – an investment in the future
by Thomas F. Hammer

The principle of sustainability implies the holistic consideration of all the costs of producing, operating and disposing of a product. The reconditioning of a DN 2000 needle valve weighing 40 tonnes after 40 years in service was found to be more economical and sustainable than the production of a new valve. For such a project to succeed, the prerequisite is of course total know-how covering all the stages of stripping out, transporting and machining the old valve and re-installing the reconditioned one when it is, once again, as good as new.

Key words: Valves, ductile cast iron, investment in the future, costs of a product, life cycle, manufacture, operation, disposal, DN 2000 needle valve, Wendefurth dam, Harz Mountains, Talsperrenbetrieb Sachsen-Anhalt, Rappbode dam, flood protection system, overview of Rappbode dam system, gravity dam, segments, floor of the valley, crest of the dam, copper plates inset into the concrete, joints sealed with tar and hemp, inspection, inspection galleries, outlet sluices, turbine, generation of electricity, valves, normal operation, irregularities, check, valve manufacturers, overhaul, investing in a new valve, economical solution, reconditioning of the valve, body, components of the valve, replacement of guides and sealing components, general overhaul, logistics services, scope of the contract, time taken by project, period of time, hydraulic isolation, re-installation, dam, stripping out, transport as a heavy load, dismantling, appraisal, technical conversion of the design, quality of cast iron, work on the structure of the valve, operation for decades more, machining, guiding inner circumference, vertical turret lathe, tolerances, tenth of a millimetre, production knowhow, final assembly, transport back, commissioning.

Casting process simulation in valve and fitting production
by André Mähnert

The same applies to foundry management as to other areas of the economy: those who are quick to do something beat those who are slow. Formerly, castings were developed to production standard in single steps and trial runs by a laborious optimisation procedure. Patterns, runner gates and feeder systems were modified and trial casts made until the casting defects and dimensional errors were within accep table limits. Depending on how complicated the casting was, optimisation of this kind could take weeks to months before volume production by a stable process was possible. With the development of computer-aided casting and solidification simulation and given suitable experience, this optimisation phase has been shortened, on the computer, to a few days. Foundries who made use of this modern-day production tool in good time gained a significant competitive advantage. Casting process simulation is described by reference to a fitting for water distribution.

Key words: Casting process simulation, valve and fitting production, Duktil Guss Fürstenwalde GmbH, MAGMASOFT® simulation software, process of developing castings for production purposes, steps on the path to optimisation, substantial savings, new approaches to finding solutions, things that are shown on the screen, visualisation of the flow and solidification processes, design phase, designer, foundryman, pattern maker, form needing to be taken in use, solidification (beginning and concluding phase), size and optimum position of risers, cooling, cavities, porosities, concentrations of material, molten iron, results from the simulation, core, molten metal, parts which are solid, solidification (in see-through form), top riser, non-sleeved riser, gating system, sprue, runners, gates, casting free of porosities, no break in the solidification fronts, variant type of risering, inlet, stream of molten metal, casting ladle, runners, filters, mould filling process, complete casting + gating system, venting passages hidden, molten metal as it flows in, contaminants, turbulence, splashing of the molten metal, casting, end of the casting, twin gates, filling temperature, flange, tracers, virtual particles of no mass or volume, direction of flow, changes in the direction of flow, rear side of the flange, mould sand, scouring, wall of the casting, erosion, conventional way of designing the risers and the gating system, casting and solidification simulation, filling and solidification, conclusions, calculation, filling problems, trial casts, reduction in the cost of materials, salary costs, labour costs, accuracy of the predictions.

Willingen ski resort: Ductile iron pipes – “Arteries” for the snow-making system
by Karl-Wilhelm Römer and Martin Schulte

Around 20 million winter sports enthusiasts come to Germany’s Sauerland mountains for a refreshing break or a holiday. Climate change is putting the region’s economy at risk due to the lack of snow. However, at heights below 1000 m the skiing season can be extended from 30 days to 80 days by the production of artificial snow. This is essential for the survival of the tourist industry. This article tells the impressive story of the design, planning and construction by the municipality of Willingen of a snow making system costing more than Euro 5 million, a process that never lost sight of the need for the environment to be respected and the natural landscape preserved. It is not only the authorities at federal state, district and municipality level who are bearing the financial burden. The ski-lift operators are paying a similar amount for snow canons and water intake points. Only ductile cast iron pipe systems could meet the requirements set by the internal pressure, ground conditions and laying technique.

Key words: Snow-making system, Willingen ski resort, DN 80 to DN 250 ductile iron pipes, certain of snow, artificial snow-making, Hochsauerland, Winterberg, Ski-Jumping World Cup, catchment area, panoramic view of the Willingen ski runs, altitude above sea level, low mountain range, altitudes, snow situation, days for skiing, study by the German Sport University Cologne, master plan, climate change, infrastructure, ski runs, procurement of water, energy, take-off points, storage of water, snow-makers, pipelines, pumping stations, supply of electricity, basic snow cover, number of days of operation, Willinger Hochheide, Flora and Fauna Habitat, residential areas, planning permission, field pipelines, environmental chaperoning section, nature protection, quiet snow guns, snow lances, width of pipeline route, restoration of the surface, narrow pipeline trench, width of the laying route, no transport of bulk material, sand, pre-screened materials, concrete components, coating of neutral pH, ski run operators, cold spells, temperature range, snow-makers, initial snow-making operation, volume of snow, total water demand, winter season, designed to look natural, Ettelsberg reservoir for water, DN 250 PN 40 transporting pipeline, pumping stations (Ettelsberg and Hoppecke), operating pressure, intervening reservoir, stream in a low mountain range, occurrences of rainfall, water carried, central reservoir, check on possible sites, area of forest, Hochheide viewing tower, water level, peak of the mountain, balance between the masses, material excavated, material used as fill, material excavated from the trenches, capacity of the reservoir, depth of water, surface area of water, plastic sealing membrane, slope of the embankments, valley of the Hoppecke, preliminary reservoir, filling pumping station, submerged pumps, earth embankments, main pumping station, embankment structure, compressor, pond aeration, power consumption, skiing areas of Sonnenhang and Ritzhaben, intermediate pumping station, supply pressure, upper terminals of the ski-lifts, supply pressure, environment, variant pipes and techniques, restrained BLS® socket joints, cement mortar lining (ZMA), sulphate-resistant cement, ductile iron pipe system, no welding work, full range of fittings matched to the system, installation costs, allowable component operating pressure of 64 bars, angular deflections, path followed by the route, external coating, coat of zinc, cement mortar coating (ZMU), stony ground, bedding materials, snow-making sections, low-voltage supply system, energy cables, transformer stations, feed points, multiple connection boxes, take-off point, medium-voltage cables, lighting cables, ski run lighting, optical fibres, controlling, monitoring, safety lighting, cable car, length of the cables, pipeline installations in the area of the Willinger Hochheide, removal of the top soil, protective geotextile, shortage of space, stockpile of excavated material, track-laying equipment, data cables, crushed stone, possibility of making repairs or remedying defects ruled out, aluminium cables in a protective sheath, rock-shielding material, protective pipe, installation in layers, federal state of Hesse, district of Waldeck-Frankenberg, private ski lift operators, water take-off points, bad weather, pressure test, DN 80 supply pipelines to take-off points, DN 100 bis DN 250 main pipelines.

Electricity generation by using the power of drinking water has a future
by Roger Aebi

In alpine terrain, drinking water is collected at springs and fed to covered reservoirs serving local communities. There are considerable heads between the two points. Hydroelectric plants powered by drinking water kill two birds with one stone: a local water supply is combined with local electricity generation. Guaranteed tariffs for electricity fed onto the grid mean that the plant and the installation work soon pay for themselves. Ductile cast iron pipes with restrained push-in joints are equal to the high operating pressures and are easy to install and their robust material will withstand any external loads.

Key words: DN 150 penstock, electricity generation, power of water, climate change, emissions, carbon dioxide (CO2), Switzerland’s energy strategy, increases in efficiency, renweable energies, electrification, energy mix, generation of electricity, hydroelectric power stations powered by drinking water, CO2 balance sheet, drinking water pipelines, eco-electricity, electricity, advantages for the operator, nature, water cycle, low cost, Swiss energy and climate policy, Swiss Federal Office of Energy, unused potential, suitable sites, mountainous regions, central plateau, municipality of Saint-Martin, Sion, Val d’Hérens, sustainable development, Ossona, agriculture, tourism, pilot project, development of rural regions, supply of drinking water, main pipeline which supplied water, tremendous head of water, average annual output, energy value, fuel oil, saving, twin-jet Pelton turbine, maximum pressure, inlet to the turbine, maximum water flowrate, control system for the station, on-screen monitoring, great safety and reliability in operation, economical operation, easy installation of pipelines, rocky terrain, long life for the pipeline, pipe material selected, ductile iron pipe system, polyurethane (PUR) lining, ducpur ductile iron pipes, combined drinking water and power station pipelines, zinc coat, bitumen top coating, client, high strength of the material, reliable and proven hydrotight connecting technology, demanding areas of application, hydrotight restrained push-in joint, project data, thrust resistance, nominal size (DN), wall-thickness class, lenght of pipeline, type, layout, pressure class, requirements for drinking water hygiene, soft water, EN 15655, security of supply, schematic representation of a hydroelectric power station, generation of energy, protection of the environment, technical innovations, reduction of CO2 emissions, small hydroelectric power stations, beneficial energy sources, Swiss Federal Electricity Supply Act, cost-covering remuneration for electricity, economic conditions, economics, eEco-electricity, secondary-use facilities.

Parts of a turbine penstock pipeline slope at up to 80° – The Plankenbach (San Cassanio) small hydroelectric power plant
by Andreas Moser

Governments try to achieve their CO2 reduction targets by making guaranteed payments for electricity from renewable sources which is fed onto the grid. These same  targets also have an important part to play in the economic success of a small hydroelectric power plant in South Tyrol. A spring, formerly used only for drinking water production, is being used to feed a 1.2 km long DN300 turbine pipe with a PFA of 63 bars. With extreme gradients of up to 80°, pipe laying in steeply sloping trenches blasted in rock and other acrobatic feats called for – ductile cast iron pipe systems provided an elegant solution to all these problems.

Key words: Penstock pipeline, Plankenbach small hydroelectric power plant, San Cassiano, South Tyrol, village of Latzfons, client: municipality of Klausen, rises in the price of electricity, small hydroelectric power station, green certificates, fixed remunerations for electricity fed onto grid, cents kWh, revitalisation, Wieser power station, invitation-to-tender phase, new DN 300 PN 63 ductile iron turbine pipeline, generator building of the Wieser power station, water to power the turbine, duct, hydroelectric power station, topographic conditions, ductile iron pipeline, pipe trench, slope of 80°, almost vertical installation, high Alpine terrain, driving with explosives, restrained ductile iron pipe system, simple connection, VRS-T®/BLS® joint, locking components, BLS® push-in joint, 90° bend, inlet to the turbine, sideways thrust, concrete thrust block, operating pressure, difference in height, water intake structure, diameter of the pipes, route, gradient, goods-carrying cable car, track-laying excavator, excavated material, installation of the pipes, adverse conditions, ecologically clean, electricity, ruggedness of the cement mortar coating, corrosion protection, pipes with a cement mortar coating, corrosive soils, trenchless installation techniques, mechanical protection, production process, plastic-modified cement mortar based on blast furnace cement, uniform thickness, fishtail nozzle, bandaged with net-like knitted material, properties of the materials remain constant, useful life, height of cover, safety margins, undesigned loads, thicknesses of the pipe wall, fittings, valves, areas of use, possibility of angular deflections, economic benefit, environment-friendly pipes, protection of groundwater and soil, high resistance to chemicals, economic advantages, EN 545, EN 15542, maximum grain size, impact resistance, no exchanges of soil, savings of time and money, DVGW, long-term corrosion protection, push/pull technique, auxiliary pipe technique, burst lining technique, horizontal directional drilling (HDD) technique, pipe ploughing technique, pipe relining technique.

Using ductile cast iron pipes to combat climate change
by Stephan Hobohm

The CO2 reduction programme, the feed-in tariff for electricity from renewable sources and favourable topographic conditions are factors that encourage the construction of small hydroelectric power plants. In Garmisch-Partenkirchen, an old line for drinking water has been increased in size to feed a small hydroelectric plant which mainly generates electricity but also provides a reserve supply of drinking water. In the steep mountainous terrain there were extreme difficulties that the pipeline layers had to overcome. Thanks to the rugged ductile cast iron pipes with restrained joints and heavy duty external protection, the project went off exactly as planned. The pressure test at 61 bars was passed at the first attempt and the small plant has been producing electricity for 700 4-person households for a year now. Over the next 10 years the community is looking to increase its proportion of renewable energy to 40 %.

Key words: Climate change, district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, market town, administrative centre, Werdenfelser Land, Free State of Bavaria, lower building supervisory authority, lower water authority, Tyrol, rivers Loisach and Partnach, Wettersteingebirge mountain range, Ammergebirge range, Estergebirge range, Zugspitze, Alpspitze, ductile iron pipes, BLS® push-in joints, topographical features, generation of eco-friendly energy, promotion of renewable energy, large amounts of water delivered, large heads, generation of electricity, clean environment, Esterberg springs, main Degernlahne waterworks, emergency supply, Technological University Munich (TUM), Department of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, Bavaria State Ministry for Economic Affairs / Infrastructure / Transport and Technology, source of drinking water, old DN 100 drinking water pipelines, grey cast iron, electricity plants, laying of a new pressure pipeline, self-sufficiency, energy yield, turbine house, intake structures at the springs, turbine pipeline, turbine house, limited amount of space, main access road, architecture, tourists, Geppert company, Hall in Tirol, fitting out the power station, ideal solution for the machinery, twin-jet Pelton turbine, delivery of water, minimum, maximum, head, pressure at rest, turbine and generator, nozzles, severe demands on the material, rotating parts of the machinery, safe operation of the plant, Geppert Pelton turbine, brushless revolving-field synchronous generator, integral exciter, rated output, Hitzinger generator, speed in this high range, water-cooled, generates very little noise, ventilation openings, residential area, noise abatement measure, mats of Sylomer damping material, foundation for the machinery, acoustic de-coupling, transmission of sound, compensator, vibrations, penstock pipeline, highly sound-absorbent door, source of noise, rainwater relief sewer, amounts of noise generated, manhole covers, dip pipe, prevention of noise being generated, spring tapping structures, laying of the new turbine pipeline, inlet altitude, geodetic difference in height, DN 100 drinking water pipelines, steep and rocky terrain, complicated route followed, high pressures, pressure surges, selection of the material of the pipeline, DN 400 ductile iron pipes, EN 545, BLS® restrained socket joint, DVGW Arbeitsblatt GW 368, thrust-resistant joint, thrust blocks can be dispensed with, different external coatings and wall-thickness classes, pressure in the given zone, conditions of installation, traffic-carrying surfaces,PUR Longlife coating, active protective system, cement mortar coating, ski slope at Kuhweide, coat of zinc, top coating of polyurethane, infill of chippings, short haulage routes, saving on kilometres of lorry travel and CO2, environment-friendly, power station project, EN 15542, bedding material, soils of any corrosiveness, Alpine regions, gravel or fine chippings, grain sizes, wall-thickness classes K 9 and K 11, allowable operating pressure (PFA), fitting of socket bends, welding beads, DN 80 to DN 500 clamping rings, set of BLS® locks DN 300 to DN 500, BLS® plain ended pipes, metres in height, branches and bends, branch to a high level service reservoir, safeguard of concrete thrust blocks, securing in position, impassable terrain, Alps, rock, route planned for the pipeline, inspections, steady gradient, outlet of the pipeline, unusually steep slope, forested terrain which sloped down very steeply, transportation, helicopter, laying company Hohenrainer of Ohlstadt, conventional open-trench technique, line followed by the route, Daxkapelle, maximum gradient, securing provisions, rock anchors, concrete cross-bar, infill in the trench, route of the road, winter, town, walking excavator, fixing in place, phases, connections, fittings, collars, flanged sockets, ends of the pipeline, piece of pipe, gap was closed, shortened ductile iron pipe, internal pressure test, test pressure, end closure, blank flange, thrust, special steel fitting, DN 400 PN 63 flanged spigot, puddle flange, BLS® welding bead, 2? internally threaded bore, remotely controllable valve, high-pressure pipe, drainage, standard procedure, EN 805, recultivation work, trial operation, no faults, water flowrate on completion, output on completion, Wank mountain, feed-in tariff, stipulated tariff, sum invested, atmosphere, carbon dioxide, branch pipe, supply of electricity, supply of drinking water, ski-sports centre in the Werdenfelser Land, sophisticated planning, supervision of construction and laying, technical assistance, follow-up order, Garmisch-Partenkirchen Municipal Utilities Authority, transporting pipeline, Grainau.

The driven cast iron pile system – operation, use and advantages as illustrated by the Lebrija solar energy park in Spain
by Thomas Aumueller

For the past few years, the centrifugally cast ductile cast iron pipe has been used in a slightly modified form as a foundation pile in special purpose foundation engineering. It combines a number of technical and economic advantages such as its simple installation without the use of any special machinery. A simple excavator with a hydraulic pile driving hammer fitted is all that is needed. No scrap sections have to be cut off and any leftovers can always be used. More recently, there have been trials of its use as an energy pile in geothermal tubes and this gives it additional potential in these times of increasing promotion of renewable energies.

Key words: Driven cast iron pile system, operation, use, advantages, solar energy park, Andalusian town of Lebrija in Spain, special-purpose foundation engineering, function, load transmission, procedure, lake dwellings, Neolithic period, Bronze Age, wooden piles, dwellings, shores of lakes, cast-in-situ concrete piles, bored piles, output per day, construction industry, simple and safe pile system capable of a wide range of uses, components of the ductile pile system, spheroidal graphite cast iron, mechanical loads, driving process, dynamic form, centrifugally cast pipes, pipe sizes, pipe diameters, wall thicknesses, static load, pile pipe, socket with a conical inside surface, conical spigot end, lengths of pipe, overall length of piles, driving of the piles, driving equipment, excavator, hydraulic hammer, adapter for socket of pile, pile shoe, earth being forced in, first pipe in the pile, high impact energy, friction welding, rigid frictional connection, final depth, section projecting above ground, angle grinder, piece that is cut off, no off-cuts and no waste, ungrouted end-bearing piles, pressure-grouted piles which transit their load by skin friction, liquid concrete, interior of the pile, outer sheath of concrete, outside, surface area, grouting process, concrete pump, inventory of a construction company, pressure-distributing plate, simple site equipment, low capital costs, inexpensive handling, record of the penetration into the soil, driving record, high output rates, running metres, sinking with almost no vibration, foundations, houses and blocks of flats, industrial buildings, sheds, water and sewer pipelines, unstable soils, bridges, motorway bridges, slope stabilisation, building of roads and footways, energy prices, energy pile, geothermal energy, heat pumps, oil, gas, high thermal conductivity of cast iron, application whose future is promising, CO2 reduction targets, renewable energy sources, building heating, Guadalquivir, Solon Hilber Technologie GmbH, Mover system, prefabricated modular units for generating solar electricity, tracking movement by the modules, Mover pedestal, raising of cattle, large modular panels, erosion, edges from which rain drips off, drying out, structural design, control system of the Movers, wind speed, settlement, pivoting mechanism, soft soil, least expensive way of obtaining a foundation, adverse effects on the environment, small areas for access and working, deep foundation, simple fast and economical use.